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Expertise is appointed after the need arises to clarify certain facts, based on special knowledge in a field of science, technology, art or craft.

The expertise is:


  1.  INITIAL - when for the first time a specialist from a given field is assigned to study a given object.
  2.  ADDITIONAL - is appointed when the initial expertise is not sufficiently complete and clear;
  3.  REPEAT - is appointed when the conclusion made is not sufficiently substantiated and there is a doubt about the truth;

    The type of expertise is determined by the nature of the object to be examined. It is possible for the same subject, document, etc. to be the subject of different examinations /e.g. a document can be the subject of commodity, chemical, trasological, forensic-ballistic, etc. expertise.

Types of forensic examinations:

     Forensic forensic examination - depending on the object and the subject are distinguished: Dactyloscopic examination; trasological; ballistic; handwriting, etc.

    Forensic Chemical and Physico-chemical expertise - depending on the object and subject are distinguished: examination of drugs; of narcotic substances and precursors; of metals, metal products, plastics, plastic products, petroleum products, fuels and lubricants and flammable liquids.


    Forensic examination - is mandatory when there is doubt about: the cause of death; the nature of the bodily injury; sanity of the suspect or accused; the ability of the accused / suspect / witness in view of his physical and mental condition to correctly perceive the facts relevant to the case and to give credible explanations / testimonies about them;

    Forensic biological expertise - is appointed in case of serious crimes against the person, examining objects of biological type: blood, saliva, hair, sweat, tears, bones, tissue, etc.

    Forensic psychiatric examination - the purpose is to prepare a document that assists the judiciary in establishing the objective truth;

    Forensic psychological expertise - assigned independently or as a complex / combined /. Objects are persons in whom there are no visible mental disorders, the purpose is to establish facts and circumstances, reasons for committing the act.

    Forensic accounting, financial and economic expertise and expertise for valuation of property, services and real estate - their preparation requires special knowledge in the field of reporting and control

    Forensic commodity expertise - there are 2 types: industrial and non-industrial goods. It is necessary to study the problems related to: the method of production; method of storage; mode of transportation; way of realization.

    Forensic auto technical expertise - a system of expertise that uses special knowledge in the field of automotive and trasology. Objects are: the vehicle or its individual parts, the traces of the accident, the place where the accident occurred, etc.

    Forensic fire-technical expertise - this expertise should be carried out during the initial investigative actions in order to preserve authentic sites. Objects are: burnt buildings, facilities, objects, documents, firefighting equipment, etc.

    Forensic construction and technical expertise - is prepared in case of divisions for termination of co-ownership, in settling contractual relations between investors and construction companies, etc. Objects are: real estate, construction sites, materials, urban plans, approved construction documents, etc.

    Forensic agro-technical expertise - is prepared in case of damage and establishment of agricultural products, improper storage, impact of some unfavorable factors / hail, floods, drought, etc./, the presence of fertilizers, etc. Object are: seeds, crops, plantations, fertilizers, etc.

    Forensic environmental expertise - is prepared in two cases:

- expertise aimed at preventing the commission of offenses - aims to predict possible positive or negative impacts on the environment;

- expertise related to the realization of liability in case of violation of relevant norms in the Criminal Code.

    Forensic sociological expertise - is necessary for all types of crimes, as to one degree or another affect certain public relations. The object is the affected public relations



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